ABSTRACT. Many of the characteristic practices of adjudication and decision making of contemporary western penal systems increasingly make express reference to vocabularies of risk assessment and risk reduction (Sparks). Improvement in accuracy of prediction risk assessments is contingent upon a determination of the characteristics of offenders and their circumstances that are subject to change during the sentence (Andrews). Risk knowledges are fluid and flexible and capable of supporting a range of penal strategies (Hannah-Moffat).



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