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ABSTRACT. There has been a significant decline in the number of independently owned rural pharmacies serving non-metropolitan areas, thereby limiting access to pharmaceutical services for rural residents, particularly for those most vulnerable and in need of these services. The use of telepharmacy is one potential solution to this problem. Telepharmacies deliver pharmaceutical care to outpatients at a distance via telecommunication and other advanced technologies. This study identifies rules and laws enacted by states authorizing the use of community telepharmacy initiatives within their respective jurisdictions. As of August 2016, the use of telepharmacy was authorized, in varying capacities, in 23 states (46%). Pilot program development that could apply to telepharmacy initiatives was authorized by six states (12%). Waivers to administrative or legislative pharmacy practice requirements that could allow for telepharmacy initiatives were permitted in five states (10%). Nearly one-third of the states (16, or 32%) did not authorize the use of telepharmacy, nor did they authorize the pursuit of telepharmacy initiatives via pilot programs or waivers.

Keywords: telepharmacy; rule; statute; rural; community; outpatient

How to cite: Tzanetakos, George, Fred Ullrich, and Keith Mueller (2018). “Telepharmacy Rules and Statutes: A 50-State Survey,” American Journal of Medical Research 5(2): 7–23.

Received 9 December 2017 • Received in revised form 27 April 2018
Accepted 1 May 2018 • Available online 25 May 2018

doi:10.22381/AJMR5220181

GEORGE TZANETAKOS
Department of Health Management and Policy,
College of Public Health,
The University of Iowa
FRED ULLRICH
Department of Health Management and Policy,
College of Public Health,
The University of Iowa
KEITH MUELLER
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Department of Health Management and Policy,
College of Public Health,
The University of Iowa
(corresponding author)

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