ABSTRACT. Kovero et al. claim that long-term violin and viola playing has a modifying effect on dentofacial morphology. Yeo et al. write that with the popularity of musical instruments, dentists are treating an increasing number of musicians of all ages and abilities. Rodríguez-Lozano et al. determine that there is an association between violin playing and the presence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Steinmetz et al. argue that craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) symptoms occur frequently in violin/viola and wind players and can be associated with pain in the neck, shoulders and arm. (pp. 135–139)

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